In these pages of Realhistoryww, many proofs are presented to support the assertion that Blacks in the U.S. are primarily Black Europeans, and Blacks in latin America are primarily Paleoamericans: with the exception of Black Brazilians, who are primarily of African extraction. In Brazil, the exact proportions will need further study, but Brazils ongoing relationship with Africa in times of Slavery is well documented, even to where Africans came to Brazil to secure the freedom of African nobles who were kidnapped into Slavery. That relationship is absent in the rest of the Americas.
Blacks in the U.S. are undoubtedly mostly of European extraction. The data to support that conclusion is already plentiful and available in these pages. The reason this is not generally known and accepted: is because the entire civil rights movement in the U.S. was based on all U.S. Blacks being one people, with one background (Africa), and one experience (Slavery). The racial cohesion and unity needed for a mass movement, was thus satisfied with those imbedded, and untrue beliefs. Note that the term "African American" is a new and modern term. The most obvious fallacy is that all U.S. Blacks were Slaves. Actually about 16-20% were always free, and in that group there were Slave owners. As we can see from the 1850 U.S. census, Whites were also Slaves.
The U.S. Black leadership has no interest in propagating these truths, because they fear that it might/probably will, dilute their power, as Africans and Black Europeans pursue their own separate histories. (Note that today, Blacks in the U.S. have the entire month of February to discover and celebrate their history). Yet their entire presentation is invariably about the miseries of Slavery, and some African kingdoms of dubious merit. On the other hand, Albino media will never carry these truths, because it would require an answer to the question of what happened and why - Europe's Albinos have shown no interest in admitting their crimes - so that will go nowhere.
Comparative morphological studies of the earliest human skeletons of the New World have shown that, whereas late prehistoric, recent, and present Native Americans tend to exhibit a cranial morphology similar to late and modern Northern Asians (short and wide neurocrania; high, orthognatic and broad faces; and relatively high and narrow orbits and noses): the earliest South Americans tend to be more similar to present Australians, Melanesians, and Sub-Saharan Africans (narrow and long neurocrania; prognatic, low faces; and relatively low and broad orbits and noses).
Quote: "No transoceanic migration is necessary to explain our findings, because Paleoamerican-like humans were also present in East Asia during the final Pleistocene and could perfectly well have entered the New World across the Bering Strait. A final solution to this dilemma will depend of course on a better understanding of what was happening in North America at the same time. Recent archaeological data can be used to support a dual occupation of the New World, either directly or indirectly. Dixon, for example, analyzed the diversity of the projectile points found in the earliest sites of North America and concluded that two different and independent cultural traditions (or cultures) entered the continent in the final Pleistocene. According to Dixon, bow-and-arrow technology was brought to the Americas only by the second tradition, because the atlatl was the primary hunting weapon of the first."
|From the study.
Geographical location of other early human skeletal remains in the Americas showing Paleoamerican morphology and their respective chronological range.
Several sets of investigators are collaborating on bioarchaeological studies within the Pacific Northwest. Most of this work is known through personal communication and few details are available in advance of publication. At least three sets of researchers are engaged in DNA studies, and three sets of researchers are undertaking projects to develop more extensive, region-wide osteological studies.
Loring Brace (University of Michigan) and Richard Jantz (University of Tennessee, Knoxville) are attempting to incorporate cranio-facial measurements from Pacific Northwest crania into their respective worldwide comparative databases. Jantz and Owsley (1999a) are performing multivariate analyses to explore differences between ancient crania and modern populations. They have recently argued that Buhl skeletal remains show differences between the ancient and modern populations, and that Buhl's morphometric traits are not similar to modern Native American groups; in fact they are closer to groups from the Pacific. They suggest that a source of the early migrants to America might be found in Asian Circumpacific populations. These populations are quite naturally variable, but their craniofacial morphology consists of cranial vaults that are large, long and narrow, forward projection of the face, and low faces. Polynesians and some ancestors to early California Indian populations probably came out of these populations. More recently Jantz and Owsley (2000) analyzed a sample of 11 crania (Spirit Cave, Wizards Beach, Browns Valley, Pelican Rapids, Prospect, Wet Gravel male, Wet Gravel female, Medicine Crow, Turin, Lime Creek, and Swanson Lake). The sample includes the pre-Mazama Prospect burial, from Oregon.
|Note: Polynesian is a term that the Albino people have applied to Pacificans/Austronesians who have significant "White Mongol/European" admixture. They reserve the term Melanesian for the original "Pure Black" Pacificans/Austronesians who have resisted admixture.|
Each cranium was compared to 34 modern groups. Six crania (Prospect, Wet Gravel male, Wet Gravel female, Medicine Crow, Turin, and Wizards Beach) fall into the variation of modern groups; however, they do not show any particular affinity with nine modern Native American samples. When the crania are compared to each other they form three distinct groups. The first group is comprised of Browns Valley, Pelican Rapids, and Lime Creek. Turin and Medicine Crow make up the second group, and the third group consists of the Wet Gravel specimens, Swanson Lake, Prospect, Wizards Beach, and Spirit Cave. They conclude that their results are inconsistent with hypotheses of a single ancestral group and suggest that historic cranial variation is probably of recent origin.
As early as 1991 Brace and his collaborators (Brace et al. 1990) began to suggest that their multivariate analysis of the world-wide Michigan database showed that west coast Amerindian samples most closely aligned with the Jomon-Pacific samples. These ideas are cross-fertilizing with the Ossenberg (1994) scenario involving migrations of proto-mongoloid, Paleo Tlingit-Haida populations from Southeast Asia followed by later Paleo Aleut-NaDene populations. Brace and Nelson (personal communication 2000) are further developing the Circumpacific origins of early New World migrants. In this respect, Fenton and Nelson (personal communication 2000) are further exploring the affinity for the Buhl woman. Fenton is also addressing the related significance of the Buhl woman's Harris lines and Os Acromiale.
Neves and Blum (2000) are testing the recent claim that craniofacial observations of the Buhl Paleoindian remains are similar to other North American and East Asian populations. The measurements of the Buhl skull were compared to twenty-six modern populations (Howells), and to a Paleoindian skull from Lapa Vermelha, Brazil, which shows morphological similarities with Africans and Australians. Multivariate analysis shows that there is a great difference between the Paleoindian skulls, and when compared to the modern populations the skulls belong to different clusters. They suggest that at least two populations peopled the Americas; one with characteristic "Mongoloid morphology," and another with a generalized morphology.
European colonization of the Americas began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East and inadvertently landed on the American continent. Prior European contact existed on a limited basis when several Norse expeditions arrived on the shores of present-day Greenland and Canada in the 10th century. While Norse settlements in southern Greenland existed for several centuries, archaeologists have found remains of only one short-lived Norse settlement in Canada. According to Norse folklore, violent conflicts with the indigenous population ultimately made the Norse abandon those settlements. It wasn't until five centuries later that the systematic conquest and colonization of America began with Columbus' discovery of Hispaniola.
As the sponsor of the discovery voyage, Spain was the first European power to settle the Americas and colonize the largest areas, from North America and the Caribbean to the southern tip of South America. Spanish cities were founded as early as 1496 with Santo Domingo in today's Dominican Republic or San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1508 or Veracruz (Mexico) and Panama City in 1519. The city of St. Augustine, Florida founded by Spain in 1565 is the oldest continuously inhabited European city in present-day United States.
Other powers such as France also founded colonies in the Americas: in eastern North America, a number of Caribbean islands, and small coastal parts of South America. Portugal colonized Brazil. This was the beginning of a dramatic territorial expansion for several European countries. Europe had been preoccupied with internal wars, and was only slowly recovering from the loss of population caused by the bubonic plague; thus the rapid rate at which it grew in wealth and power was unforeseeable in the early 1400s. Eventually, the entire Western Hemisphere came under the control of European governments, leading to profound changes to its landscape, population, and plant and animal life. In the 19th century alone over 50 million people left Europe for the Americas
European colonization of the Americas
A relatively common misconception is that a small number of conquistadors conquered vast territories, aided only by disease epidemics and their powerful caballeros. In fact, recent archaeological excavations have suggested a vast Spanish-Indian alliance numbering in the hundreds of thousands - (Against Blacks). Hernán Cortés eventually conquered Mexico and the Tlaxcala in 1519-1521, while the conquest of the Inca was carried out by some 40,000 Incan renegades led by Francisco Pizarro in between 1532 and 1535.
(Note: These were NOT ethnically Incans, but rather, Mongol citizens of the Incan Empire).
To reward their troops, the Conquistadors often allotted Indian towns to their troops and officers. Black African slaves were introduced to substitute for Native American labor in some locations—including the West Indies, where the indigenous population was nearing extinction on many islands. During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil. They imported millions of slaves to run their plantations. The Portuguese and Spanish royal governments expected to rule these settlements and collect at least 20% of all treasure found (the Quinto Real collected by the Casa de Contratación), in addition to collecting all the taxes they could. By the late 16th century American silver accounted for one-fifth of Spain's total budget. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports.
Inspired by the Spanish riches from colonies founded upon the conquest of the Aztecs, Incas, and other large Native American populations in the 16th century, the first Englishmen to settle permanently in America hoped for some of the same rich discoveries when they established their first permanent settlement in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. They were sponsored by common stock companies such as the chartered Virginia Company financed by wealthy Englishmen who exaggerated the economic potential of this new land. The main purpose of this colony was the hope of finding gold.
It took strong leaders, like John Smith, to convince the colonists of Jamestown that searching for gold was not taking care of their immediate needs for food and shelter and that "he who shall not work shall not eat". The extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. Tobacco later became a cash crop, with the work of John Rolfe and others, for export and the sustaining economic driver of Virginia and the neighboring colony of Maryland. From the beginning of Virginia's settlements in 1587 until the 1680s, the main source of labor and a large portion of the immigrants were indentured servants looking for new life in the overseas colonies.
During the 17th century, indentured servants constituted three-quarters of all European immigrants to the Chesapeake region. Most of the indentured servants were teenagers from England with poor economic prospects at home. Their fathers signed the papers that gave them free passage to America and an unpaid job until they became of age. They were given food, clothing, housing and taught farming or household skills. American landowners were in need of laborers and were willing to pay for a laborer’s passage to America if they served them for several years. By selling passage for five to seven years worth of work they could then start out on their own in America. Many of the migrants from England died in the first few years. (Albino Europeans were especially susceptible to death in the Southern Colonies were the Sun was the strongest).
Slavery existed in the Americas, prior to the arrival of Europeans, as the Natives often captured and held other tribes' members as captives. Some of these captives were even forced to undergo human sacrifice under some tribes, such as the Aztecs. The Spanish followed with the enslavement of local aborigines in the Caribbean. As the native populations declined, mostly (nonsense) from European diseases, but also and significantly from forced exploitation and careless murder - true), they were often replaced by Africans imported through a large commercial slave trade.
By the 18th century, the overwhelming number of black slaves was such that Native American slavery was less commonly used. Africans, who were taken aboard slave ships to the Americas, were primarily obtained from their African homelands by coastal tribes who captured and sold them.
The great majority went to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil, where life expectancy was short and the numbers had to be continually replenished. The total slave trade to islands in the Caribbean, Brazil, Mexico and to the United States is estimated to have involved 12 million Africans.
Most sources seem to agree that the average lifespan of a Southern slave was 7 years of field labor.
From The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
In the Caribbean, Dutch Guiana and Brazil, the slave death rate was so high and the birth rate so low that they could not sustain their population without importations from Africa. Rates of natural decrease ran as high as 5 percent a year. While the death rate of U.S. slaves was about the same as that of Jamaican slaves, the fertility rate was more than 80 percent higher.
About 500,000 Africans were imported into what is now the U.S. between 1619 and 1807--or about 6 percent of all Africans forcibly imported into the Americas. About 70 percent arrived directly from Africa. Well over 90 percent of African slaves were imported into the Caribbean and South America. Only about 6 percent of imports went directly to British North America. Yet by 1825, the U.S. had a quarter of blacks in the New World.
(In 1825 the Black population of the U.S. was about 2 million). This source is saying that the total Black population of the Americas was 8 million in 1825. It is a lie, there is no way that they could know the total population of any group in the Americas!
A ship going to Africa to buy slaves carried a large cargo of mixed goods, such as cotton, brass pans and guns. These were exchanged for enslaved Africans, who were shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to north and south America and the Caribbean. Here they were set to work on the plantations (large areas of land owned by Europeans where crops were grown). The ships’ captains would buy goods to take back to Europe. These would be goods produced by slave labor on the plantations. They were tobacco, sugar, indigo (a plant used for dye), rice, rum and cotton.
The trade goods used for buying enslaved Africans were often produced and sold locally around Bristol. But local industries did not always produce the goods which African buyers wanted. Traders in Bristol therefore had to buy products from elsewhere to trade with Africa. For example they bought cotton cloth from India (from a trading company, the East India Company, in London), or from traders in Manchester. Guns were mostly bought from the makers in Birmingham, but gunpowder was made in Bristol. The African traders, with whom the Bristol traders were doing business, wanted goods which were not available in Africa. They would have particular requirements for different types of fabric, for example, and would find a trading partner who could provide it. Copper was highly prized by West Africans: it has been called the ‘red gold of Africa’. African traders therefore happily accepted brass items, brass being an alloy or mix of copper and zinc. They would buy it from European traders in blocks, which could be melted down to make decorative items. Europeans made brass ‘manillas’, which was brass moulded into a bracelet shape.
These became a form of money in West Africa. African traders would also buy items made from brass for everyday use, such as the one pictured here. Bristol had an important brass industry. Much of the brassware produced in Bristol was sold to slave traders for the African market. Glass beads, such as those shown here, were used to trade with Africans. The beads had to be bought abroad for sale to Africa. The main suppliers were the city of Venice in Italy and Bohemia (in what is today Czechoslovakia). Beads were available in many sizes, shapes and colors. A European slave trader could be caught out by a change in fashion and find that the beads he had chosen were no longer wanted by his African trading partner. The Bristol ship the Africa in 1774 was left with a large quantity of unsold beads. The involvement of Bristol in the Africa trade boosted industry in and around the city. Gunpowder, glass, pottery, woolen cloth, iron and brass pans went to Africa and all were produced locally. Without the transatlantic slave trade , local industry would not have had such a big market and been so profitable.
REMEMBERING THAT INDENTURES ARE EUROPEANS, AND OVER TIME, THE BLACK ONES BECAME SLAVES FOR LIFE, AS THEY WERE IN FACT PRISONERS-OF-WAR FROM RACE/RELIGIOUS WARS IN EUROPE. See: John Casor and Anthony Johnson for the first known case - Both were Black.
Note: Initially Race and Slavery were different issues. Blacks were Slave owners, and did not support Slave rebellions. Often, the runaway Slave tracker was a Black man.
As in Europe, at some point, the Albinos in the Americas decided that they wanted it all, they want to be the masters of it all. We can only guess at what horrible acts they committed to secure the Americas as their prize; that because the victor gets to tell the story - and a story filled with lies it is. But we do know that in the end, some 90 million Black and Brown Americans were dead!
|Title: America as a Land of Opportunity
Author: Benjamin Franklin
Type of document: essay
Quotation: "Why increase the Sons of Africa...where we have so fair an Opportunity...of increasing the lovely White and Red?"
Perhaps the most important essay written by an American during the eighteenth century, Franklin's "Observations Concerning the Increase of mankind" was one of the first serious studies of demography. In the early nineteenth century it would serve as an inspiration for Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), who based his grim law of population (that population would inevitably outstrip the food supply) on Franklin's calculations. But Franklin's argument was, in fact, quite different from Malthus's bleak prophesy. Franklin, like other Americans as late as Lincoln, held to a belief that no man in America needed to long remain a laborer for others. Despite the doubling of the population in every twenty years or so, America remained a land of opportunity, where wages remained high and even slaves were expensive.
What is perhaps most striking about Franklin's essay today is his sophisticated use of "social science" data to convince the British ministry to alter its colonial policies. Particularly jarring, however, is Franklin's plea that America be maintained as an entirely Anglo-Saxon society.
Europe is generally full settled with Husbandmen, Manufacturers, &c. and therefore cannot now much increase in People: America is chiefly occupied by Indians, who subsist mostly by Hunting. But as the Hunter, of all Men, requires the greatest Quantity of Land from whence to draw his Subsistence, (the Husbandman subsisting on much less, the Gardner on still less, and the Manufacturer requiring the least of all), The Europeans found America as fully settled as it well could bee by Hunters; yet these having large Tracks, were easily prevail'd on to part with Portions of Territory to the new Comers, who did not much interfere with the Natives in Hunting, and furnish'd them with many Things they wanted.
Land being thus plenty in America, and so cheap as that a labouring Man, that understands Husbandry, can in a short Time save Money enough to purchase a Piece of new Land sufficient for a Plantation, whereon he may subsist a Family; such are not afraid to marry; for if they even look far enough forward to consider how their Children when grown up are to be provided for, they see that more Land is to be had at Rates equally easy, all Circumstances considered.
Hence Marriages in America are more general, and more generally early, than in Europe. And if it is reckoned there, that there is but one Marriage per Annum among 100 Persons, perhaps we may here reckon two; and if in Europe they have but 4 Births to a Marriage (many of their Marriages being late) we may here reckon 8, of which if one half grow up, and our Marriages are made, reckoning one with another at 20 Years of Age, our People must at least be doubled every 20 Years.
But notwithstanding this Increase, so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully; and till it is fully settled, Labour will never be cheap here, where no Man continues long a Labourer for others, but gets a Plantation of his own, no Man continues long a Journeyman to a Trade but goes among those new Settlers, and set up for himself, &c. Hence Labour is no cheaper now, in Pennsylvania, than it was 30 Years ago, tho' so many Thousand labouring People have been imported.
The Danger therefore of these Colonies interfering with their Mother Country in Trades that depend on Labour, Manufactures, &c. is too remote to require the Attention of Great-Britain.
But in Proportion to the Increase of the Colonies, a vast Demand is growing for British Manufacturers, a glorious Market wholly in the Power of Britain, in which Foreigners cannot interfere, which will increase in a short Time even beyond her Power of supplying, tho' her whole Trade should be to her Colonies: Therefore Britain should not too much restrain Manufactures in her Colonies. A wise and good Mother will not do it. To distress, is to weaken, and weakening the Children, weakens the whole Family....
'Tis an ill-grounded Opinion that by the Labour of Slaves, America may possibly vie in Cheapness of Manufactures with Britain. The Labour of Slaves can never be so cheap here as the Labour of working Men is in Britain. Any one may compute it. Interest of Money in the Colonies from 6 to 10 per Cent. Slaves one with another cost L30 Sterling per Head. Reckon then the Interest of the first Purchase of a Slave, the Insurance or Risque on his life, his Clothing and Diet, Expences in his Sickness and Loss of Time, Loss by his Neglect of Business (Neglect is natural to the Man who is not to be benefitted by his own Care or Diligence), Expense of a Driver to keep him at Work, and his Pilfering from Time to Time, almost every Slave being by Nature a Thief, and compare the whole Amount with the Wages of a Manufacturer of Iron or Wool in England, you will see that Labour is much cheaper there than it can ever be by Negroes here. Why then will Americans purchase Slaves? Because Slaves may be kept as long as a Man pleases, or has Occasion for their Labour; while hired Men are continually leaving their Master (often in the midst of his Business) and setting up for themselves.
....There are suppos'd to be now upwards of One Million English Souls in North-America, (tho' 'tis thought scarce 80,000 have been brought over Sea) and yet perhaps there is not one the fewer in Britain, but rather more, on Account of the Employment the Colonies afford to Manufacturers at Home. This Million doubling, suppose but once in 25 Years, will in another Century be more than the People of England, and the greatest Number of Englishmen will be on this Side the Water. What an Accession of Power to the British Empire by Sea as well as Land! What Increase of Trade and Navigation! What Number of Ships and Seamen! We have been here but little more than 100 Years, and yet the Force of our Privateers in the late War, united, was greater, both in Men and Guns, than that of the whole British Navy in Queen Elizabeth's Time....
And since Detachments of English from Britain sent to America, will have their Places at Home so soon supply'd and increase so largely here;
why should the Palatine Boors [Germans] be suffered to swarm into our Settlements, and by herding together establish their Language and Manners to the Exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them, and will never adopt our Language or Customs, any more than they can acquire our Complexion.
Which leads me to add one Remark: That the Number of purely white People in the World is proportionably very small. All Africa is black or tawny. Asia chiefly tawny. America (exclusive of the new Comers) wholly so. And in Europe, the Spaniards, Italians, French, Russians and Swedes, are generally of what we call a swarthy Complexion; as are the Germans also, the Saxons only excepted, who with the English, make the principal Body of White People on the Face of the Earth. I could wish their Numbers were increased. And while we are, as I may call it, Scouring our Planet, by clearing America of Woods, and so making this Side of our Globe reflect a brighter Light to the Eyes of Inhabitants in mars or Venus, why should we in the Sight of Superior Beings, darken its People? why increase the Sons of Africa, by Planting them in America, where we have so fair an Opportunity, by excluding all Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely White and Red? But perhaps I am partial to the complexion of my Country, for such Kind of Partiality is natural to Mankind.
The Viceroyalty of New Granada, was a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, and parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.
Introduction / History
Afro-Ecuadorians are descendants of black African slaves brought to South America by the Spanish during the times of conquest of the region. Afro-Ecuadorians make up a substantial percentage of Ecuador's population. They came to be located in Ecuador also by escaping from a slave ship that ran aground off the coast while heading toward Peru in the 1500s. After establishing a settlement, others from nearby regions migrated there to form a 'strength in numbers' type of society and went on to provide safe haven for escaped slaves who could successfully make the trip to their settlement.
Joshua Project is a research initiative seeking to highlight the ethnic people groups with the fewest followers of Jesus Christ.
Afro-Ecuadorians are an ethnic group in Ecuador who are descendants of black African slaves brought by the Spanish during their conquest of Ecuador from the Incas. They make up from 4% to 6% of Ecuador's population. Ecuador has a population of about 1,120,000 descendants from African people. The Afro-Ecuadorian culture is found primarily in the country's northwest coastal region. Africans form a majority (70%) in the province of Esmeraldas and the Valle del Chota in the Imbabura Province. They can be also found in Quito and Guayaquil.
Most Afro-Ecuadorians are the descendants of slaves which originally arrived in Ecuador from the early 16th century. In 1533, the first African slaves reached Ecuador in Quito when a slave ship heading to Peru was stranded off the Ecuadorian coast. The slaves escaped and established maroon settlements in Esmeraldas, which became a safe haven as many slaves either escaped to there or were forced to live there. Eventually, they started moving from their traditional homeland and were settling everywhere in Ecuador.
Slave ships first arrived in Ecuadorian ports in 1553 and slaves worked on plantations and in gold mines. Although slavery was abolished at independence in 1822, the descendents of enslaved Africans continued to suffer the consequences of that socio-economic system.
Minority Rights Group International campaigns worldwide with around 130 partners in over 60 countries to ensure that disadvantaged minorities and indigenous peoples, often the poorest of the poor, can make their voices heard. - See more at: http://www.minorityrights.org/23/about-us/about-us.html#sthash.ov6aQAel.dpuf
The borders of the Audiencia (or kingdom as it was also known) of Quito were poorly defined, and a great deal of its territory remained either unexplored or untamed throughout much of the colonial era. Only in the Sierra, and there only after a series of battles that raged throughout the mid-sixteenth century, was the native population fully subjugated by the Spanish. The jungle lowlands in both the Oriente and the coastal region of Esmeraldas were, in contrast, refuges for an estimated one-quarter of the total native population that remained recalcitrant and unconquered throughout most or all of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Despite Orellana's harrowing journey of discovery, the Oriente remained terra incognita to the Spanish until its settlement by Jesuit missionaries beginning in the mid-seventeenth century, and it continued to be largely inaccessible throughout the remainder of the colonial period.
The coastal lowlands north of Manta (City) were conquered, not by the Spanish, but by blacks from the Guinean coast who, as slaves, were shipwrecked en route from Panama to Peru in 1570. The Blacks killed or enslaved the native males and married the females, and within a generation they constituted a population of zambos (mixed black and Indian) that resisted Spanish authority until the end of the century and afterwards managed to retain a great deal of political and cultural independence.
Unit Three: Studying Africa through the Humanities
Module Fifteen: Africa and the World
Brazil's population includes the largest number of people of African descent in the entire Western Hemisphere. How did Africans get to Brazil, a country in South America? As in Mexico and India, in Brazil, Africans were transported to the country as slaves. Here, slavery lasted longer than in any other country in the New World.
When the Portuguese arrived in Brazil in 1500, 2 - 5 million indigenous Brazilians were living in the territory. The Indians and the Portuguese battled for land, and the Indians resisted against the Portuguese as they tried to enslave them. The growing Portuguese presence in Brazil after 1530 brought with it more disease and caused an increase in the number of slave raids. Many of the Indians were killed and many others were forced to migrate into the interior of the country.
What caused more Portuguese to come to Brazil around 1530? The Portuguese began to cultivate sugar and settle on the east coast of Brazil. The growing number of sugar plantations demanded more workers, and the Indian population had become smaller because many Indians had died. To deal with this labor shortage, the Portuguese began to import slaves from Africa into Brazil to work on the plantations.
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532. Colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during these initial phases to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were primarily captured by Portuguese Jesuit expeditions called bandeiras. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.
Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Brazil, and sugar was the primary export of the colony from 1600–1650. Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of African slaves to power this newly profitable market. Transportation systems were developed for the mining infrastructure, and population boomed from immigrants seeking to take part in gold and diamond mining.
Demand for African slaves did not wane after the decline of the mining industry in the second half of the 18th century. Cattle ranching and foodstuff production proliferated after the population growth, both of which relied heavily on slave labor. 1.7 million slaves were imported to Brazil from Africa from 1700–1800, and the rise of coffee in the 1830s further enticed expansion of the slave trade.
(This map is courtesy of the Brazilian government - therefore it is not necessarily authentic).
War of the Triple Alliance, also called Paraguayan War, Spanish Guerra de la Triple Alianza, Portuguese Guerra da Tríplice Aliança , (1864/65–70), the bloodiest conflict in Latin American history, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.
Paraguay had been involved in boundary and tariff disputes with its more powerful neighbors, Argentina and Brazil, for years. The Uruguayans had also struggled to achieve and maintain their independence from those same powers, especially from Argentina.
In 1864 Brazil helped the leader of Uruguay’s Colorado Party to oust his Blanco (White) Party opponent, whereupon the dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano López, believing that the regional balance of power was threatened, went to war with Brazil. Bartolomé Mitre, president of Argentina, then organized an alliance with Brazil and Colorado-controlled Uruguay (the Triple Alliance), and together they declared war on Paraguay on May 1, 1865.
López’s action—following his buildup of a 50,000-man army, then the strongest in Latin America—was viewed by many as aggression for self- and national aggrandizement; but, as the war wore on, many Argentines and others saw the conflict as Mitre’s war of conquest.
It caused approximately 390,000 deaths, the highest rate of fatalities related to the number of combatants of any war in modern history. It particularly devastated Paraguay, which suffered catastrophic losses in population and was forced to cede territory to Argentina and Brazil.
According to the Argentina national census of 2010, the total Argentine population amount is 40,117,096, of which 149.493 are from African ancestry. The Afro-Argentine population resulting from the slave trade during the centuries of Spanish domination of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata had a major role in Argentine history. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, they comprised up to fifty percent of the population in some provinces, and had a deep impact on national culture. In the 19th century, the population declined sharply in number as a result of several factors such as the Argentine War of Independence (c. 1810-1818), high infant mortality rates, low numbers of married couples in this ethnic group, the Paraguayan War, cholera epidemics in 1861 and 1864, as well as a yellow fever epidemic in 1871. By the late 19th century, the Afro-Argentine population consisted mainly of women who mixed with European immigrants, whom arrived by the thousands on Argentine soil. In fact, the immigration torrent was so strong that Argentina eventually became the second country in the world that received the most immigrants, with 6.6 millions, second only to the USA.
Argentina is a federal republic with a population of approximately 40.1 million. For the first time since the late nineteenth century, the 2010 census (conducted in October 2010) included questions to compile information on the number of African descendants in Argentina. The last census to count the black population in Argentina occurred in 1895. Since then, Argentines of African descent have remained statistically invisible, which activists claim has fuelled a myth that a significant Afro-Argentine population no longer exists. It also means there is no data available on the actual number or socio-economic conditions of Afro-Argentine women.
Although many Afro-Argentines no longer have the more obvious physical attributes stereotypically associated with African descent, and although some may even be reluctant to claim African ancestry, in 2010 rights organizations, such as Diafar, estimated that there were about 2 million people of African descent in the country. Along with Afro-Argentine descendants from the colonial period and Afro-descendant migrants from neighbouring countries such as Brazil and Uruguay, the Argentine black population in 2010 included post-war migrants from the Cape Verde islands, and an ever-increasing number of – mostly male – political exiles and economic migrants from West and Central Africa.
The 2010 inclusion of census questions regarding the black population can be seen as a small victory for the predominantly female-led Argentine ethnic rights organizations, such as MRG partner Casa de la Cultura Indo-Afro Americana. These have fought in a persistent and sustained manner for over a decade to increase the visibility of African descendants.
The census was not without controversy. Rights activists charge that a number of African descendants and indigenous people who were trained to be census-takers during pilot trials were not actually used, contrary to agreements between rights organizations and the government's National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INDEC). It also emerged that two types of questionnaires were deployed in 2010, a long and a short form. Only the long version included questions on 'Black' or 'Afro-descendant' and indigenous origins as one of the identifying categories. As Afro-Argentine activists discovered, this longer form was only applied to one in every ten households, meaning that within Argentina's highly diverse urban neighbourhoods, there was a high probability that census-takers would miss homes inhabited by African descendants and indigenous people, and once again leave them undifferentiated.
Disappointment among the Afro-Argentine community prompted concerns regarding the bureaucratic challenges Afro-Argentineans would eventually face at national, regional and local levels, as a result of inaccurate data generated by the census, and the resulting lack of statistical data relating to their demographic and socio-economic situation. They are particularly concerned that the data gap will continue to make it difficult to develop and implement appropriate policies and programmes to address the specific needs of their marginalized communities. In response, at the end of 2010, African descendant rights groups in Argentina began strengthening their efforts to develop rights monitoring and data compilation bodies of their own.
THE VICEROY OP NEW SPAIN, BY DONALD E. SMITH
"With the exception of the very unusual appearance of European regiments in New Spain in time of war and of a comparatively small number of officers taken from the regular home army
for the colonial service, the white men in the Mexican army were
Creoles. It was the policy of the crown to limit the total number
of effective forces in New Spain, but to encourage the enlistment
of recruits of all the different colors represented in the Mexican
population. Besides the organizations composed exclusively of
whites, there were some made up partly of whites and partly of
mestizos; there were companies made up of mestizos alone, with
white officers; and there were even several companies of black
freedmen, both among the regulars and the militia.
The Oxford History of Mexico
edited by William Beezley, Michael Meyer
By the 1790s, black slavery had all but disappeared in Mexico, Most of the colony's few thousand slaves were employed in warm regions relatively near the coasts.
The Spanish conquest also brought the migration of people of African descent to the many regions of the Viceroyalty. Some came as free blacks, but the vast majority came because of the introduction of African slavery.
The Peopling of Mexico from Origins to Revolution
Robert McCaa - University of Minnesota
The best colony-wide census was the last, that ordered by the Viceroy Conde de Revillagigedo (1789-93) and the first to use a standard format for listing individuals by name, age, sex, occupation, race, and marital status. Nevertheless, this effort missed large expanses of New Spain. The German savant Alexander von Humboldt, from his sojourn in the colony, prepared a four volume Essai which revised the Revillagigedo figures to produce a comprehensive set of estimates, adjusted for growth to 1803. A decade later Francisco Navarro y Noriega increased the Revillagigedo numbers by 20% for under-enumeration (Humboldt favored 10%), obtained figures for districts which had not reported earlier, and estimated growth to 1810 at 25% (1.5% per annum for 17 years, using arithmetic commutation rather than geometric).
There is consensus that demographic recovery, in addition to growth, meant transformation. Infusions of European and African stocks were slight (and predominantly male). If the Aguirre-Beltrán series is sound, foreign stocks peaked around 1650 with 35,000 Africans (two percent of total population), mostly slaves, and 10,000 Europeans, mainly Spanish speakers. The most dramatic change was the growth of mestizos, or people of mixed stock, which, according to Aguirre-Beltrán, constituted almost 25% of the population as early as 1650, rising to 40% in 1810. Historians agree that in colonial Mexico racial categorizations were fluid (documents usually speak of "calidad" instead of "raza"—character or reputation, instead of race), and that passing was common. Thus, the rapid growth of the mixed population was a matter of economics and sociology, but demography was also important. Among Europeans and Africans the shortage of females insured much interbreeding, if not intermarriage, with Amerindians. Then too, social identities had their advantages, for undermining as well as upholding the colonial order. The onerous head tax levied solely on Indians encouraged some to abandon the village of birth (particularly where land was scarce or made scarce by land-grabbing Spanish-speakers) for nearby haciendas or towns and adapt to a non-Indian calidad. In Michoacán, for example, over the eighteenth-century the population as a whole increased five-fold, but the native population only tripled, in part due to Indians abandoning village life to escape the head tax.
For people of African roots—perhaps 200,000 slaves were imported into Mexico over three centuries—, slavery gradually withered away. By the beginning of the eighteenth-century, free labor was too abundant—that is too cheap—for slavery to compete. Then, too, slaves helped destroy slavery, by fleeing, extracting concessions, demanding freedom, taking advantage of civil and church law, and forming communities of free people called mulattoes or pardos. Afro-Mexicans with conscious identities based on kinship and community numbered more than one-half million by 1810 and "constituted the largest group of free blacks in the Western hemisphere."
Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (1489 – 17 November 1573) was a Spanish humanist, philosopher and theologian. In 1533 and 1534 he wrote to Desiderius Erasmus from Rome concerning differences between Erasmus's Greek New Testament (the Textus Receptus), and the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209. He was the adversary of Bartolomé de las Casas in the Valladolid Controversy in 1550 concerning the justification of the Spanish Conquest of the Indies. Sepúlveda was the defender of the Spanish Empire's right of conquest, of colonization, and of evangelization in the so-called New World. He argued on the base of natural law philosophy and developed a position which was different from the position of the School of Salamanca, as represented famously by Francisco de Vitoria.
The Valladolid Controversy was organized by King Charles V (grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella) to give an answer to the question whether the Native Americans were capable of self-governance. Sepúlveda defended the position of the colonists, although he had never been to America, claiming that the Amerindians were "natural slaves" as defined by Aristotle in Book I of Politics. "Those whose condition is such that their function is the use of their bodies and nothing better can be expected of them, those, I say, are slaves of nature. It is better for them to be ruled thus."
Quote: "The man rules over the woman, the adult over the child, the father over the children, and so it is with the barbarous and inhumane peoples who have no civil life and peaceful customs. It will always be just and in conformity with natural law that such people submit to the rule of more cultured and humane princes and nations...(who) can educate them these people to a more humane and virtuous life. And if the latter reject such rule, it can be imposed on them by force of arms. Such a war will be just according to natural law." Juan Gines de Sepulveda
Cruelties used by the spaniards on the indians. From the book: Popular British Opinion in the late 17th Century, Bartolomé de las Casas, 1474-1566. An Account Of the First Voyages and Discoveries Made by the Spaniards in America. Containing The most Exact Relation hitherto publish'd, of their unparallel'd Cruelties on the Indians, in the destruction of above Forty Millions of people. . Illustrated with cuts. London: Printed by J. Darby for D. Brown, 1699.
As part of the general 1790 census of New Spain by Viceroy Juan Vicente Güemes Pacheco de Padilla Revillagigedo (which is NOT made available), the Pueblo of Los Angeles was also censused.
Note for Blacks in the U.S.
Of the 44 original pobladores [colonists] who founded Los Angeles, only two were white, Of the other 42, 26 had some degree of African ancestry and 16 were Indians or mestizos [people of mixed Spanish and Indian blood]. — William M. Mason, 1975
Cruelties used by the spaniards on the indians. From the book: Popular British Opinion in the late 17th Century, Bartolomé de las
Casas, 1474-1566. An Account Of the First Voyages and Discoveries Made by the Spaniards in America. Containing The most
Exact Relation hitherto publish'd, of their unparallel'd Cruelties on the Indians, in the destruction of above Forty Millions of people.
Illustrated with cuts. London: Printed by J. Darby for D. Brown, 1699.
|This little volume, a translation into English from a French condensation of several different older works by Bartolomé de las Casas, indicates the curious mixture in British attitudes of anti-Spanish outrage (in the illustration) and of entrepreneurial ambition|
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